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7th International Conference on Hepatology, will be organized around the theme “Hepatology -Therapeutic Innovations, New Drugs, Approaches, and Investigations”
Hepatology-2020 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Hepatology-2020
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Liver disease is any disturbance of liver function that causes illness. The liver is responsible for many critical functions within the body and should it become diseased or injured, the loss of those functions can cause significant damage to the body. Liver disease is also referred to as hepatic disease. Liver disease is a broad term that covers all the potential problems that cause the liver to fail to perform its designated functions. Usually, more than 75% or three quarters of liver tissue needs to be affected before a decrease in function occurs.
Types of Liver Diseases including:-
- Track 1-1Autoimmune Liver Diseases
- Track 1-2Vascular Disorders
- Track 1-3Genetic Liver Diseases
- Track 1-4Wilson Diseases
- Track 1-5Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases
- Track 1-6Metabolic diseases
Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation and damage. Inflammation is swelling that occurs when tissues of the body become injured or infected. Inflammation can damage organs. Researchers have discovered several different viruses that cause hepatitis, including.
- hepatitis A
- hepatitis B
- hepatitis C
- hepatitis D
- hepatitis E
Cirrhosis is a slowly developing disease in which healthy liver tissue is replaced with scar tissue. The scar tissue blocks the flow of blood through the liver and slows the liver’s ability to process nutrients, hormones, drugs and natural toxins (poisons). It also reduces the production of proteins and other substances made by the liver. Cirrhosis eventually keeps the liver from working properly.
- Fatty liver
- Alcoholic hepatitis
- Chronic hepatitis
Liver cysts are fluid-filled sacs that form in the liver. They’re benign growths, meaning they aren’t cancerous. These cysts generally don’t require treatment unless symptoms develop, and they rarely affect liver function. Liver cysts are the result of a malformation in the bile ducts, although the exact cause of this malformation is unknown. Bile is a fluid made by the liver, which aids in digestion. This fluid travels from the liver to the gallbladder through ducts or tube-like structures.
- Simple cysts
- Multiple cysts arising in the setting of polycystic liver disease (PCLD)
- Parasitic or hydatid (echinococcal) cysts
- Cystic tumors
Ductal cysts, choledochal cysts, and Caroli disease are differentiated from hepatic cysts.
Liver cancer is cancer that begins in the cells of the liver. The liver is a football-sized organ that sits in the upper right portion of your abdomen, beneath your diaphragm and above your stomach. Cancer that spreads to the liver is more common than cancer that begins in the liver cells. Cancer that begins in another area of the body — such as the colon, lung or breast — and then spreads to the liver is called metastatic cancer rather than liver cancer. This type of cancer is named after the organ in which it began — such as metastatic colon cancer to describe cancer that begins in the colon and spreads to the liver.
Several types of cancer can form in the liver. The most common type of liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma, which begins in the main type of liver cell (hepatocyte).
- Hepatocellular Carcinoma
- Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma
A liver transplant is surgery to replace a diseased liver with a healthy liver from another person. A whole liver may be transplanted, or just part of one. In most cases the healthy liver will come from an organ donor who has just died. Sometimes a healthy living person will donate part of their liver. A living donor may be a family member. Or it may be someone who is not related to you but whose blood type is a good match. People who donate part of their liver can have healthy lives with the liver that is left.
The liver is the only organ in the body that can replace lost or injured tissue (regenerate). The donor’s liver will soon grow back to normal size after surgery. The part that you receive as a new liver will also grow to normal size in a few weeks.
Types of Liver Transplantation:-
- Orthotopic transplant
- Living donor transplant
- Split type of liver transplant
- Split type of liver transplant
Liver disease that occurs during pregnancy can present a challenge for healthcare providers. Certain liver diseases are uniquely associated with pregnancy, whereas others are unrelated. The liver diseases unique to pregnancy include hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP), intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), and hemolysis and elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. Liver disease such as acute viral hepatitis can occur in pregnancy, and pregnancy may occur in a patient with underlying chronic liver disease, including patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension, and patients who have undergone liver transplantation.
- Hyperemesis gravidarum
- Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP)
- Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP
- Elevated liver enzymes
- Low platelets (HELLP) syndrome
The pancreas and bile duct (biliary) systems together form an important part of the digestive system. The pancreas and liver produce juices (pancreatic juice and bile) which help in the process of digestion (i.e. the breakdown of foods into parts which can be absorbed easily and used by the body.
There are several types of Pancreas and Biliary System Diseases:-
- Acute Pancreatitis
- Alcohol-Related Pancreatitis
- Chronic Pancreatitis
- Gallstone Pancreatitis
- Gallstones and Bile Duct Stones
- Hereditary Pancreatitis
- Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm
- Pancreas Divisum
- Pancreatic Cancer
- Pancreatic Insufficiency
- Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC)
- Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction (SOD)
Endoscopy is the insertion of a long, thin tube directly into the body to observe an internal organ or tissue in detail. It can also be used to carry out other tasks including imaging and minor surgery. Endoscopes are minimally invasive and can be inserted into the openings of the body such as the mouth or anus. Alternatively, they can be inserted into small incisions, for instance, in the knee or abdomen. Surgery completed through a small incision and assisted with special instruments, such as the endoscope, is called keyhole surgery.
Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancerous) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach and in front of the spine. The pancreas produces digestive juices and hormones that regulate blood sugar. Cells called exocrine pancreas cells produce the digestive juices, while cells called endocrine pancreas cells produce the hormones. The majority of pancreatic cancers start in the exocrine cells.
- Exocrine tumors
- Neuroendocrine tumors
The gallbladder is a small pouch that sits just under the liver. The gallbladder stores bile produced by the liver. After meals, the gallbladder is empty and flat, like a deflated balloon. Before a meal, the gallbladder may be full of bile and about the size of a small pear. In response to signals, the gallbladder squeezes stored bile into the small intestine through a series of tubes called ducts. Bile helps digest fats, but the gallbladder itself is not essential. Removing the gallbladder in an otherwise healthy individual typically causes no observable problems with health or digestion yet there may be a small risk of diarrhea and fat malabsorption.
Gallbladder diseases considered here include
- Acute acalculous cholecystitis.
Disorders of the liver and biliary system (which creates and stores bile) may require surgical correction. These disorders can be developmental or congenital, or they may manifest later in childhood or adolescence.
- Benign gallbladder diseases include infections (cholecystitis) and gallstones causing symptoms (biliary colic).
- Bile duct cysts (choledochal cysts) stem from abnormal development of the biliary system and have been associated with cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) as well as infection of the bile duct (cholangitis).
- Biliary atresia can prevent bile from being able to drain from the liver into the intestine. It stems from abnormal development of the biliary system.
Hemochromatosis is a disorder where too much iron builds up in the body. Sometimes it’s called “iron overload.” Normally, our intestines absorb just the right amount of iron from the foods we eat. But in hemochromatosis, our body absorbs too much, and it has no way to get rid of it. So, our body stores the excess iron in our joints and in organs like our liver, heart, and pancreas. This damages them. If it’s not treated, hemochromatosis can make our organs stop working.
There are two types of this condition primary and secondary.
- Primary hemochromatosis
- Secondary hemochromatosis
Babies to teens experience from different types of liver diseases. The volume of the liver and the blood flow decreases with age, immune responses against pathogens or neoplastic cells are lower in the elderly reducing their tolerability to treatments for liver diseases. Liver regeneration capacity shows a decline in age, reduced proliferation of hepatocytes, but the level of hepatic enzymes and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is well maintained. Pediatric hepatology focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of liver and liver-related disease in infants and children.
- Acute Liver Failure in Children
- Wilson's Disease in Children
- Chronic Hepatitis B Infection in Children
- Autoimmune Liver Disease in Children (Autoimmune Hepatitis/Sclerosing Cholangitis)
- Metabolic Liver Diseases
Clinical Hepatology is a series of concise monographs on diseases commonly encountered in the clinical practice of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology. Particular emphasis is placed on areas in which knowledge is advancing rapidly. Clinical Gastroenterology includes practical information of companies or laboratories that perform specialized testing, relative costs of diagnostic and therapeutic options.
The series is of great value to Gastroenterologists and Hepatologists interested in the latest practical developments in the field as well as Internists who have particular interests or large numbers of patients with particular diseases in the field of Gastroenterology-Hepatology.