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Gastrointestinal disorders include conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, constipation, hemorrhoids, anal fissures, anal fistulas, perianal abscesses, perianal infections, diverticular diseases, colitis, colon polyps and cancer. Many of these can be prevented or minimized by, practicing good bowel habits, maintaining healthy lifestyle and submitting to cancer screening. GI disorders like functional bowel diseases are prone to American communities especially in women. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease (CD) and colitis are prominent, and some GI disorders can be controlled by medications and diet . Some of the major symptoms of GI disorders are Cramping, chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, inflammation of the large and small intestine, rectal bleeding, and weight loss.
Gastrointestinal Pathology is sub discipline of surgical Pathology. It deals with the analysis and exposure of non-neoplastic and neoplastic diseases of the digestive tract and accessory organs, such as the liver and pancreas. Though pathology diagnosis is a critical determinant of future cancer risk and screening interval, many of these diagnoses do not result in significant mortality or morbidity for patients; thus, errors may be "masked" by the limited effect in the present context to the patient.
Gastrointestinal oncology states to malignant clutter of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and assistant organs of absorption, which incorporates throat, stomach, biliary framework, pancreas, small and large digestive system, rectum and anus. The indications incorporate trouble swallowing or defecating, anomalous bleeding. The treatment requires endoscopy, taken after by biopsy of suspicious tissue. The treatment depends on the location of the tumor and the sort of cancer cell and whether it has attacked other tissues or spread somewhere else. The most common one is colorectal cancer and the recently analyzed GI cancer is pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma which is the deadly one due to the need of early conclusion and constrained success of systemic treatment
Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is also referred to as upper, lower, obscure or occult. Upper GI bleeding commonly presents with hematemesis (vomiting of red blood), coffee-ground emesis and/or melena (black, tarry stools). The black color of melena is the result of degradation of blood by intestinal bacteria. In comparison, the common sign of lower GI bleeding is hematochezia (bright red or maroon-colored blood per rectum). Due to the overflow of blood through the gut, it can lead to hematochezia. Upper GI bleeding occurs proximal to the ligament of Treitz. Small bowel bleeding occurs from the ligament of Treitz to the distal ileum. Lower GI bleeding occurs from the terminal ileum and colon. Occult bleeding is bleeding that is not apparent to the patient. The quantity of bleeding is small so that the color of stools is not altered. Patients may present with a positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT) result and/or iron-deficiency anemia (IDA). Chronic loss of small amounts of blood can eventually lead to significant IDA.
The major gastrointestinal transplantations are of liver, esophagus , pancreas, little digestive system, and colon till now. The transplantation is a major surgery, and so it has to be under observatory and post-transplantation. Most of the times, the complications emerge after the operation, where the body begins dismissing the joint or the organ. The complications can be analyzed through hematological or imaging tests. Liver transplantation is a surgery to evacuate the infected or harmed liver and transplant it with an entirety modern solid liver or a fragment of the liver from a healthy individual, who is called as a donor. Individuals with inveterate or intense liver disappointment experience a liver transplant to survive.
Gastrointestinal surgery is divided into lower GI surgery and upper GI surgery. Upper GI Surgery includes surgery for gastro-esophageal reflux, Gall bladder disease, Hernias, other benign esophageal and gastric disorders, other benign pancreatic and hepatobiliary disorders. Lower gastrointestinal surgery includes surgery of the small intestine and colorectal surgery.
Laparoscope is a fiber-optic gadget that transmits pictures from internal part of the body to a video screen when it is embedded in the stomach divider.
Digestive cancers can have wide-ranging effects on our nutritional status, health and quality of life. It shows the symptoms of swelling, internal bleeding, acute pains, inability to digest, difficulty in swallowing or chronic constipation or acute diarrhea.
The diagnosis often requires endoscopy, pursued by biopsy of suspicious tissue and the treatment depends on the location of the tumor, as well as the type of cancer cell and whether it has invaded other tissues or spread elsewhere, these factors also determine the prognosis. Esophageal cancer is the sixth-most-common cancer in the world, and its incidence is increasing day by day.
Neuro-gastroenterology encircles the study of brain, the gut and their interactions in relevance to the consideration and management of gastrointestinal motility and functional gastro intestinal disorders. Neuro-gastroenterology is associated with complex motility and sensory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. These conditions include: dysphagia related to ineffective esophageal motility, gastroesophageal reflux, cyclic vomiting syndrome, gastroparesis Hirschsprung’s disease, intestinal pseudo-obstruction slow transit constipation and pelvic outlet disorders related to constipation.
An important aspect of the function of gastrointestinal tract system is immune reaction of the gastrointestinal tract to the external stimulus or the failure to respond. The current development in terms of research area is gastrointestinal disorders. The latest developments in organ transplantation of the gut and liver and HIV infection of the gut, and the recently discovered disease H. pylori gastritis are the immune abnormalities in scientific progress in the area of gut immune system .
Gastrointestinal Radiology or GI Imaging employs a shape of the real-time x-ray called fluoroscopy. A barium-based differentiate fabric to create pictures of the, throat, digestive tract, stomach and other parts of stomach related framework. It is secure, non-invasive, and may be habituated to profit precisely, analyze torment, corrosive reflux, blood in the stool & other side effects.
Liver is the most important key player in your body's digestive system. Everything passes through it whatever you eat or drink, including medicine. You need to treat it right so that it can stay healthy and do its job. Eat healthy diet and get regular exercise so that you'll keep your weight under control, which helps in preventing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition that leads to cirrhosis. Watch out for certain medicines, Some Cholesterol drugs which can occasionally have a side effect that causes liver problems. Alcoholic beverages can create many health problems and they can damage or destroy liver cells and scar your liver.
Diet and Exercise
Babies to teens experience from different types of liver diseases. The volume of the liver and the blood flow decreases with age, immune responses against pathogens or neoplastic cells are lower in the elderly reducing their tolerability to treatments for liver diseases. Liver regeneration capacity shows a decline in age, reduced proliferation of hepatocytes, but the level of hepatic enzymes and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is well maintained. Pediatric hepatology focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of liver and liver-related disease in infants and children.
Inflammation of the liver characterized by diffuse or patchy necrosis is Hepatitis . Auto immune hepatitis (AIH) is one exception. When your immune system attacks your liver cells this type of liver disease occurs. AIH is chronic condition that can result in cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver.. Auto immune hepatitis likely results from a combination of auto immunity, environmental triggers, and a genetic predisposition. It occurs more frequently in females. Treatment includes corticosteroids and medications that suppress the immune system. Liver transplant may be needed In severe cases). Liver is not inflamed in ischemic hepatitis. Rather, liver cell death occurs. The term hepatitis is used because technically, it refers to any disorder in which liver enzymes called amino transferase leak from damaged liver cells into the blood.
Auto immune hepatitis
The journal present up-to-date coverage of basic and clinical researches on molecular and cell biology, pathophysiology, epidermal, diagnosis, and treatment of the various diseases of the liver and biliary tract, B viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma are the common liver diseases in Asian-pacific region. Idiosyncratic drug induced liver injury (Dili) is a rare adverse druid reaction and it can lead to jaundice, liver failure, or even death. In the Western world Antimicrobials and herbal and dietary supplements are among the most common therapeutic classes to cause DILI. Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extra cellular proteins collagen that occurs in most types of chronic liver diseases.
Drug induced liver injury
Clinical Gastroenterology is a series of concise monographs on diseases commonly encountered in the clinical practice of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology. Particular emphasis is placed on areas in which knowledge is advancing rapidly. Clinical Gastroenterology includes practical information of companies or laboratories that perform specialized testing, relative costs of diagnostic and therapeutic options.
The series is of great value to Gastroenterologists and Hepatologists interested in the latest practical developments in the field as well as Internists who have particular interests or large numbers of patients with particular diseases in the field of Gastroenterology-Hepatology.
10th International Conference on Liver Diseases & Hepatology, December 02-03, 2019, Tokyo, Japan | 15thAnnual Congress on Gastroenterology & Hepatology, March 30-31, 2020 Hong Kong |18th International Conference on Gastroenterology and Digestive Disorders | November 18-19, 2019 Dubai, UAE | 16th World Congress on Gastroenterology & Therapeutics, April 06-07, 2020 Osaka, Japan
Gastroenterological Society of Australia (GESA) | Australian and New Zealand Gastric and Oesophageal Surgery Association | Philippine Society of Gastroenterology (PSG) British Society of Gastroenterology | European Association for Gastroenterology, Endoscopy & Nutrition | Auckland Gastroenterology Associates | Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons (AUGIS) Canadian Society of Intestinal Research (CSIR) | American College of Gastroenterology
The pancreas is a large gland behind the stomach and next to the small intestine which produces juices that help break down food and hormones and help control blood sugar levels. The pancreas does two main things:
It releases powerful digestive enzymes into the small intestine to aid the digestion of food.
It releases the hormones insulin and glucagon into the bloodstream. These hormones help the body control how it uses food for energy.
Pancreatitis is a disease in which the pancreas converts inflamed. Pancreatic destruction happens when the digestive enzymes are triggered before they are released into the small intestine and initiate attacking the pancreas.
There are binary forms of pancreatitis:
It starts when cells in the pancreas start to grow out of control. Pancreatic cancer initiates when abnormal cells in the pancreas grow and divide out of mechanism and form a tumor. Organs, similar the pancreas, are made up of cells. Usually, cells split to form new cells as the body desires them. When cells get old, they die, and new cells take their place. Cancers that cultivate within the pancreas fall into two chief categories:
- cancers of the endocrine pancreas are called "islet cell" or "pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors or PNETs"
- Cancers of the exocrine pancreas (the part that makes enzymes).
Treatment can consist of surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy or a combination of these.
Signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer:
- Pain in the upper abdomen that radiates to back.
- Loss of appetite,
- Blood clots.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a band of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the most important types of inflammatory bowel disease. It not only affects the small and large intestine but also affects the mouth, oesophagus, stomach and the anus.
- The following symptoms are abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and severe internal cramps/muscle spasms in the region of the pelvis and weight loss. Diagnosis is generally done by assessment of inflammatory markers in stool followed by colonoscopy with biopsy of pathological lesions.
Gallbladder diseases considered here include gallstones, tumors, and acute acalculous cholecystitis. Gallbladder stones are an extremely common disorder and are usually asymptomatic. Some patients experience biliary colic, an intermittent and often severe pain in the epigastrium or right upper quadrant, and at times between the scapula because of temporary obstruction of the cystic duct with a gallstone. If the cystic duct obstruction persists, the gallbladder becomes inflamed and the patient develops cholecystitis, an acute inflammation and infection of the gallbladder. The vast majority of patients with gallstones are asymptomatic. Symptomatic gallstones typically manifest with right upper quadrant abdominal pain, often accompanied by nausea and vomiting